Monograph by A. Yunitskiy “String transport systems: on Earth and in space” (in Russian, English version will be available in about a couple of months) is published. This monograph presents the theory, development status, prospects and key results of studies of high-speed ground transport, the movement of which is performed on a string track structure and a non-rocket space vehicle in the form of a circular string system encircling the planet in a plane parallel to the equator.
From the author
The first edition of the scientific monograph offered to your attention was published in 1995. The string transport systems were predominantly a theory at that time, and practical implementation of this transport and infrastructure technology was limited to merely an acting model in 1:10 scale. However, fully functional engineering and scientific schools on this direction had already been formed by then. The work of those schools prepared the conditions for the creation of full-scale test sections of elevated string transport systems demonstrated to a wide international scientific and engineering community in the Republic of Belarus in 2017. It became possible only because the author of this monograph formed another school – a design and engineering one – under OJSC “Yunitskiy Scientific and Production Company” in Moscow in 2000. At present, SkyWay Technologies Co. alone, which is a part of the international SkyWay Holding, in Minsk has 15 design bureaus with more than 300 scientists, engineers, constructors, architects and designers employed. Their area of focus includes rail-string transport overpasses, rolling stock (cargo, urban and high-speed intercity electromobiles on steel wheels – passenger unibuses, unicars and unibikes, as well as cargo unitrucks and unitranses) and the “second level” infrastructure – stations, railway and freight terminals, depots, etc., as well as automated systems of safety, control, power supply and communications. Therefore, the string transport is not a system, but a comprehensive complex that comprises dozens of systems and even more subsystems.
The industrial prototypes of urban, touring passenger and cargo rail-string complexes are showcased on the territory of the SkyWay demonstration and certification center (in previous terminology – string tracks) in the town of Maryina Gorka, 60 km from Minsk. The speed over 100 km/h has already been achieved at the section of the lightweight string complex with an overpass 800 m long. All basic engineering calculations on the overground rail-string track structures of an overpass type presented in the first part of this monograph have been confirmed. There is no doubt that by the time this book is issued, the speed of 150 km/h will have been reached. In the very near future, we will conquer the stated milestone of 500 km/h – the speed sufficient to bring the ground transport to a qualitatively new level.
I hope you will be able to appreciate the enormous work accomplished by the author of this publication, as well as by the scientific, engineering and design schools established and headed by him. The current development stage of the string transport complexes inspires and proves in practice the trueness of the original hypothesis. Therefore, we confidently look to the future and believe that the string transport is the most promising line of development for the global transport and infrastructure sector.
The existing infrastructure solutions have exhausted themselves, ceased to meet the imperatives of our time and do not open any new opportunities. The existing transport is in fact not a solution to many problems, but their source. About 1.5 mln people die in traffic-related accidents worldwide annually, and over 10 mln people get injured and become disabled. “Rolled up” in asphalt and “buried” under railway sleepers is fertile soil, the area of which is equal to five areas of Great Britain. Soils are degraded and contaminated with carcinogens on the territory ten times larger. We all have forgotten that we did not inherit the Earth from our ancestors, we borrowed it from our children.
Transport – cars, aircraft, railway, helicopters, ships and rockets, industrial conveyors, oil and gas pipelines, as well as industry and infrastructure associated with the same is one of the main sources of environmental contamination and poses the greatest environmental hazard. The existing transport corridors are overloaded, the actual speed of passenger and cargo transportation is obviously inadequate, whereas the construction of new communications is unaffordable for the whole range of countries and regions due to their skyrocketing prices.
All this impedes the progressive development of the world economy and causes uneven distribution of social and infrastructure benefits among the population of the planet. The string transport will provide a comprehensive solution to address the global challenges, particularly through its transport and infrastructure part, which will be realized in the 21st century as a global network – Transnet. Its total length will cover dozens of millions of kilometres and will be similar to its “elder brother” the Internet. Transnet will be able to meet the whole range of communications requirements (not only transportation, but also energy and information requirements) being at the same time much more cost-efficient and effective compared to all the existing alternatives. In addition, it is characterized by a high level of safety, durability and sustainability.
Unibuses and unicars will be able to move at a speed of up to 150 km/h in the city – they will unclog the existing highways, reduce noise pollution as well as hazardous emissions into the atmosphere. High-speed unibuses and unilyots for intercity connection can reach the speed up to 500–600 km/h; with special design, in a forevacuum tunnel – up to 1,250 km/h. However, the construction cost for all kinds of elevated string transport (urban, cargo, high-speed and hyper-speed) is by several times lower compared to other transport systems of the “second level” comparable in terms of speed and volume of transportation.
A possibility of construction on territories with a challenging terrain and adverse climatic conditions, small footprint, preservation of natural landscapes, versatility and integrability with communications lines, power transmission lines – these are just a few of many advantages that the string technology provides. Taking all this into consideration, it is safe to say that the universal application of such systems can contribute to a vigorous and large-scale growth in the social and economic life of any country worldwide.
The string transport can become a framework and a technical basis to consolidate the society. This is also confirmed in practice. The project managed to gather around a million participants from 237 countries and territories all over the world (it is actually more than in the UN) for the period of 2014–2017 – just in three years from the moment the author of the monograph announced a crowdfunding program for the construction of the string transport test sections. All these people encourage the technology development in one way or another; over 300,000 of them have already become investors. This happened without any large advertising campaigns or government support. Therefore, one can only imagine those tremendous opportunities for the consolidation of the society that the string transport technologies, which are not limited to only SkyWay, represent, if their widespread introduction is offered at the level of the national or international program.
The very essence of transport implies uniting people. The string transport can fulfill this purpose both at the local and general planetary levels. The description of the corresponding transport system for the industrial exploration and space colonization – also a string one – is given in the second part of this scientific monograph (in Russian).
A general planetary vehicle (GPV) is a reusable geocosmic transport and infrastructure complex for the non-rocket exploration of near space. In the future, it will allow to take about 10 mln tonnes of cargo and 1 mln people, involved in the creation and operation of the circumterrestrial space industry, to the orbit in one trip. The modern world rocket and space industry that has already got investment in the amount of trillions of dollars by now would require about a million years to accomplish what the GPV can do in just one year. The GPV will be able to go out into space up to 100 times per year. Along with that, the cost of shipping each tonne of useful load to the intended orbit will be thousands of times lower than by the existing carrier rockets.
The GPV implementation will open up for the humanity unlimited prospects for space colonization. It will be possible to transfer all harmful production from our homeworld to space to avoid the contamination of the terrestrial biosphere. Nowadays similar ideas gain in popularity since space is a virtually inexhaustible source of energy, raw materials, spatial resources and fundamentally new technological opportunities (zero gravity, deep vacuum, etc.) that can be used for industrial purposes. This allows to produce better quality products compared to those produced on the Earth, at a lower cost, without doing damage to our common home – the biosphere. At the same time, it will give an opportunity to ultimately solve the ecological issues and provide a comfortable living environment for new generations.
The GPV project was developed by the author of the monograph nearly 40 years ago and has been repeatedly examined and verified by computational methods during this time. All engineering solutions employed in the project are widely known, tried and tested, and implemented in industry now. The project budget will amount to about 2 trillion USD, with the implementation period of about 25 years.
At present, there is practically no place left on the planet free from transport-related problems. My engineering school offers the technologies to address these problems, transform the life for the better and set the vector for the civilization development for many centuries ahead! We have already achieved substantial results and have passed on from pure science to production and commercial realization of string transport systems. We continue to work, develop ourselves, grow and are ready to come to any place and any country, which is not devoid of the sense of responsibility for the future – its future and the future of the whole planet.
The author deliberately refused to edit his previous scientific work, written by him about 30 years ago and published in 1995. Therefore, the first publication of the monograph including its preface has not been changed. Only new illustrations and photos have been added to show how this theoretical scientific research has made headway to the practical implementation in metal, concrete and composites.
Science has no period of limitation. It is not worth adjusting or rebuilding it to fit the current market trends ― for jet flights to the Moon for helium-3 or to the Mars to build a colony there and die in a spacesuit not only from own feces but also because of the absence of our Earth’s air and our Earth’s healthy food.
Affectionately yours, Engineer Anatoli Yunitskiy
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