Intellectual property of the General designer, engineer, inventor and author of the SkyWay transport technology Anatoly Yunitskiy provides a number of qualitative and quantitative benefits of "sky" transport, which clearly justify the choice in his favor in comparison with alternative types of communication systems (see the website: http://yunitskiy.com).
The advantages of the Unitsky String Transport (hereinafter UST) are ensured by the whole variety of design and technological know-how and patented engineering solutions that make up the Foundation of Intellectual property created by the inventor during many years of painstaking work.
Quality advantages of UST are directed at the optimal solution of a complex of communication tasks, in the conditions of permanent option among the variety of existing and perspective types of transport systems:
The above are achieved both at the stage of construction of string transport systems, and during their subsequent operation. This is extremely important, as the existing global transport is unreasonably cost-intensive (e.g. high-speed railroads of elevated design cost from 100 million USD/km). Moreover, it consumes a lot of energy and fuel – every year more than 2 billion tons of oil, which is the most valuable non-renewable resource.
These features provide universal mode of UST functionality in different spheres of human activities, wide applicability in different conditions of transport systems, integration into the external infrastructure (urban streets, industrial facilities, the variety of natural landscape – forests, mountainous terrain, deserts, sea shelf, etc.). This is especially important in the 21st century, as already today the existing transport has become an unprecedented threat – only on the world’s motor roads about 1.5 million people are killed each year (including deaths in hospital from post-accident trauma) and above 10 million people become disabled persons and cripples. A great deal less people in total are killed annually in wars, as a result of terrorist attacks, natural and technological disasters.
UST quantitative advantages are expressed primarily in the fact that it is a transport of the "second level", located above the ground surface. Therefore, its creation does not require a special withdrawal of adjacent lands from agricultural use. Significantly, an order less, reduced is the consumption of mineral resources for construction of transport communications: steel and steel structures, non-ferrous metals, concrete, cement, rebar, gravel, sand, soil, etc. This has significant advantages, since only the existing roads of the world "buried" under pavement the soils of total area 4 times exceeding the territory of Great Britain. Moreover, the construction of such high-cost roads resulted in consuming hundreds billion tons of non-renewable mineral resources and moving hundreds billion tons of soil. UST , which embodies the latest achievements of building mechanics, mechanical engineering and aerodynamics, with high reliability, durability and safety, has a considerably lower material consumption and, consequently, an order less cost.
In addition, thanks to the seamless technology of laying rail-string track structure in combination with its longitudinal tension, the bearing capacity of an overpass span is increased twice, and that of the overpass supports − tenfold . This allows to significantly reduce (by about two orders of magnitude), as compared to conventional railway flyovers, the number of load-bearing anchor supports, replacing them with lighter and less costly ones. Accordingly, material consumption and the cost of supports system becomes an order less.
The variants of the projects of string transport systems Yunitskiy contain hundreds of designing, technological, engineering and other know-how, as well as about a hundred patents issued by various patent offices, whereby the above advantages are achieved, resource efficiency is raised, material consumption and cost of the "second level" transport is reduced.
The know-how developed within the period 1977-2015, are at the core of the whole engineer Anatoly Yunitskiy’s Intellectual property and, being a commercial secret of his enterprises, ensure the basic value of the business developing on their basis. Being the intellectual foundation of unique engineering solutions, the know-how work together and produce a synergistic effect. A number of know-how had been disclosed earlier by the author and transferred in the category of inventions, patented and practically implemented. For example, at the test site of the cargo UST transport of the SkyWay technologies first generation, built in the town of Ozyory, Moscow region in 2001, nine Anatoly Yunitskiy’s inventions by were implemented as per 4 patents: a group of inventions under the general title "Transportation system Yunitskiy (versions) and the method of transport system construction " as per the patent of the Russian Federation № 22202249, Eurasian patents No. 006111, No. 004917, etc.
The know-how and patented technical solutions can be divided into three main groups according to the tasks at which they are directed: group A – reduction of capital costs during the construction of transport overpasses, rolling stock and infrastructure; group B – reduction of operating costs in the maintenance of transport overpasses, rolling stock and infrastructure; group C – raising all types of safety, including environmental one.
All-linear pre-stressed rail-string track structure and the technology of its construction.
This ruled out temperature expansion joints and rail joints – the main reason for high material consumption on conventional motor and rail flyovers, which consist of separate beams separated along the length by deformation (expansion) joints. This, all other things being equal, reduced material consumption and, consequently, the cost of the proposed transport overpasses by 3–5 times in comparison with conventional beamed (split) flyovers.
For example, expansion joints in a conventional split flyover, all other things being equal, increases its material consumption by 2 times, and by 16 times − for supports. The latter includes 8 times — due to changes in loading configuration of a support as it becomes a console with a loose top when working at compression, and 2 times — due to increased weight load from heavier span structures.
Yunitskiy’s Intellectual property fund contains technological and design solutions, due to which there are no expansion joints in the support-elevated rail-string structure, with all the ensuing advantages.
New design solutions in the construction of the uncut, statically indeterminate and pre-stressed truss-string track structure of overpass type.
This includes all structural components and manufacturing methods, starting from the anchor nodes, chords, truss diagonals, supports and their foundations, and ending with the reinforcement of truss chords with pre-stressed strings and technological rigging for construction and assembling works.
The main design criteria in this case are that a flyover should be stable under the heaviest calculated load, durable (service life minimum 100 years), resistant to cyclic loading (especially compressed elements and welded joints) — minimum 100 million cycles of load actions. It should be also noiseless, designed for the temperature difference) of 120 °C (with the probability of 1 time every 100 years) and hurricane winds with a speed of over 250 km/h (twister, tornado), as well as resistant to earthquakes with a magnitude of more than 9 points on the Richter scale.
Rail-string track structure, excluding fracture loading, associated with the longitudinal bearing of rails on sleepers in conventional rail transport.
To improve reliability and reduce material consumption for a rail-string overpass, sleepers are excluded from the track structure.
In Yunitskiy’s rail-string transport system conventional sleepers are absent, and each rail rests on one "infinite", continuous pre-stressed longitudinal "sleeper" (without any transverse joints and gaps). Therefore, there are practically no bend stresses in it and, consequently, no fractures resulting from them, as the rail works as a beam, resting not on supports, but on a continuous elastic base.
High flatness and rigidity of the track through the development of a complex of special technologies and rigging for the construction of a transport overpass. In particular, for welding and assembly of extended rail-string truss structures, span superstructures, supports, foundations, etc. — both in production workshops and in field conditions.
As it is known, while welding steel structures, they "deviate" and it is practically impossible to achieve high flatness of span superstructures. This has necessitated the development of special technology and rigging for welding rail-string truss structures (partially in a workshop, partly in the field) so that construction irregularities in the span of 40—50 meters would not exceed 2—3 mm. (It should be remembered that the irregularities of a track are caused not only by welded steel span superstructures, but also by supports and foundations of a flyover.) To improve further the flatness of the track, spans of a high- speed (over 400 km/h) overpass, UST are made an order more rigid in comparison with transport flyovers. For example, normative relative dynamic stiffness of a rail-string span in a high-speed UST is equal to 1/5000, whereas in conventional capital bridges it is 1/800.
In a span superstructure excluded is a solid roadbed, – the most costly and resource-intensive part of modern flyovers, which makes up 80-90% of their cost. Instead of a solid railway bed the SkyWay uses lightweight, delicate strings rails, made of conventional materials, 15—20 times less material-intensive and as many times less costly.
Redistribution of horizontal braking forces, appearing at vehicle braking, from each of the supports (as in a conventional railway flyover) to more powerful anchor supports in the continuous (jointless) pre-stressed track structure.
Due to continuous along the length and pre-stressed (stretched) rail-string track (i.e., it is "infinite"), the main part of the braking forces from the train, and in some cases this may be hundreds of tons, is transmitted not to intermediate supports, but to anchor supports, installed at the interval of several kilometers. That is, only one out of about every 100 supports is substantially loaded with horizontal braking load, while in a conventional railway flyover, due to the presence of expansion joints, each support pole of a flyover must withstand this load. This allows to significantly reduce the consumption of materials and the cost of rail-string overpasses. In addition, the resulting vector of forces distribution in the track aims at reduction of the braking force value transmitted to the anchor support, as this force, due to the jointless track design, is passed over on 2 supports at a time — one located in the front, and another at the rear.
New SkyWay logistics have made an order less the sizes of stations, depots, terminals and other infrastructure elements in comparison with the railway, including a high-speed one. The compactness of infrastructure by an order of magnitude reduced its cost, and decreased the required land acquisition, without reducing its consumer qualities – high performance, safety, affordability, etc.
New logistics of the transport system provides lack of crossings, intersections and interchanges, different algorithms of acceleration, braking, entry and exit from a station, higher motion speeds, reduction of safe distance between vehicles on the route. It allows to ensure high passenger flow with small capacity unibuses (15–20 passengers): 20—25 thousand passengers per hour, as both on the railway and subway. A 5—6 meter unibus does not need long platforms, large stations for passenger accumulation, as the traffic runs by "no schedule principle": you came in, sat down and left. Even trains, composed of 5—7 unibuses, ensuring passenger flows of 40—50 thousand passengers per hour or more, have a length of only 25—30 meters. It requires 5—7 times shorter platforms than on the railroad.
High-speed aerodynamics, which is patented and has no analogues in the world.
For example, in comparisons with other highly aerodynamic wheeled vehicles – sports cars – aerodynamics is improved by about 5 times: unibus drag coefficient is Cx=0,075 075 (obtained experimentally as a result of blowdowns in a wind tunnel), while for Porsche it is 0.34, for Bugatti – 0.38. Therefore, for movement at a speed of 400 km/h a sports car needs the engine of 1100 HP, and a five times larger and heavier unibus – 200 HP. Power saving of 900 horsepower on one vehicle will save 180 kg of fuel per hour, 3.6 tons per day (20 hour operation), 1.3 thousand tons per year, during 20 years of service − 26.3 thousand tons (10 railway trains with 52 tank-cars of 50 tons of fuel capacity each). If we have at least 1 million of such vehicles on the planet (in today's world there exist about 1 billion motor-cars), fuel savings due to the know-how in aerodynamics will amount to 26.3 billion tons, i.e. 6 times more than the current annual oil extraction.
Fundamentally new pair of wheels, which was developed and tested. This has greatly increased durability of steel wheels and the railhead, reduced wear and noise while wheel rolling.
It is known that railway transport uses a pair of wheels (its weight is about 1 ton), with its conical surface resting on the cylindrical surface of the railhead. This leads to high contact stresses (more than 100 kg per 1 mm2, which brings the steel beyond the yield point), to wobbling of truck and car when running, vibration of a rail, increased wear, noise and other adverse consequences. UST uses resting by type "cylindrical wheel – flat head" that by 5—7 times reduced contact stresses and about the same times increased durability of track structure – the most expensive part of any road. This, combined with the lack of expansion joints in the rails and dampening of the wheel rim and the rail itself, by three orders of magnitude reduced noise in steel structures of an overpass − down to 50 decibels.
As a result of reducing noise levels by 30 decibels, and the noise of running train on railroad and subway approximately equals to 80 dBA, sound power is reduced by 1000 times.
Design improvements in the pair "steel wheel – steel rail" allow the rolling stock to overcome steep slopes regardless of its adhesion weight and the ratio of sliding friction.
The possibility of laying SkyWay tracks in a straight line with slopes up to 50% reduces their length, sometimes manifold (no need to pave by-pass roads, to build winding roads), which proportionally reduces the cost of construction and travel time, especially on rough terrain and in the mountains.
The design of UST track structure, made in the same standards, enables routing with large spans of up to 3 km.
The string-rail track structure can be performed in multiple standards for a single standard of the rolling stock chassis. For example, the urban unibus can run at a height of about 10 meters on a perfectly flat city track, and then, without lowering the regular speed, can climb to a height of about 100 meters so as to cross, without a single support, for instance, a 3 kilometer wide river or any other obstacle. In addition, high-speed traffic can be carried out at high altitude in any city, if the station is located on the upper floors of high-rise buildings, and the buildings themselves are located at a distance of 1—2 km. Then any city can become a pedestrian one with a safe, noiseless and environmentally friendly "sky transport" with a sagging track structure, passing at the height of a bird flight. From the standpoint of physics, this urban transport will be the most economical, because on the descent (slope less than 12%) a unibus will gain speed not by the engine, but by gravitation. On the rise to the next station, it will pull up not by brakes, but by gravitation again. This will be a full recuperation of potential energy of the rolling stock at stations into the kinetic energy of its movement between stations. The engine is required only to compensate for the resistance to motion (aerodynamics and rolling of wheels); therefore a 50-seater track car requires only 5−7 horsepower drive to reach the speed of 120 km/h.
Loading and unloading of industrial goods "on the move"radically improves logistics of transportation of bulk cargoes – ore, coal, bauxite, other.
Loading and unloading of bulk cargo "on the move", i.e. without stopping the rolling stock, allows to implement a continuous transportation in the logics of a pipeline − the most efficient and high-performance system. In contrast to existing product transport lines – industrial conveyors, pipelines, cable lines – the net cost of transportation in UST is reduced by about 0.02 USD/ton×km. This improvement is due to the complex know-how aimed to reduce losses of fuel (energy) for cargo haulage. Then a mining company, which has, for example, a deposit with some mineral resource of 1 billion tons at a distance of 500 km from the port, will save (earn) on transportation: 1,000,000,000 ton×500 km × 0,02 USD/ton×km = 10,000,000,000 USD (!).
The exception of expansion joints in the track and its continuous (uncut) design all the way increases structure durability by 1.5–2 times and reduces maintenance costs at the same rate.
A dynamic impact from a wheel occurs on a temperature (deformation) joint of a conventional beamed flyover, as it meets the inflection point of the trajectory of vehicle motion, for example, of a high-speed train. In addition, the wheel impact increases by the fact that it falls into the transverse gap (joint) between the rails. In combination with other deficiencies such transverse joints in structures (exposure to rain and condensation of water in summer, its freezing in winter, etc.), expansion joints have become the weakest and most problematic spot in traditional flyovers. This disadvantage is absent in the UST overpass uncut along the whole length.
A significant increase in resistance to atmospheric and other harmful external influences on the UST concrete containing elements, through the application of TCC (Tube Confined Concrete) and development of hermetic casings for rail lines and other stressed elements with the aim of improving their reliability and durability.
It is known that one major disadvantage of concrete is that it practically does not work for stretching (therefore steel reinforcement is needed) and it cracks in stretched areas. Atmospheric moisture penetrates through the cracks to the armature, leading to its corrosive destruction. Over time, this can lead to the collapse of a reinforced concrete structure. Cracking of concrete in the so-called tube confined concrete (TCC) is of no danger for a structure at all — pre-stressed reinforcement (strings) are reliably protected from external natural and mechanical effects not only by concrete, but also by solid walls of steel tubes, inside of which concrete and strings are placed. Besides, the concrete, sealed in a closed volume, increases its load capacity by 2−3 times, which will significantly raise the strength reserves of a rail-string overpass (even oil in an ordinary hydraulic cylinder, which has no source of initial load bearing capacity, can withstand a pressure of 1,000 atmospheres thanks to an enclosed volume).
The lack of a continuous railway bed in the track structure, that works as an aerodynamic screen.
This allows to reduce approximately twice air resistance at high speeds, while dramatically decreasing at the same time the wind noise it produces. Just this factor alone, excluding the so-called "screen effect" (uneven airflow on vehicle top and bottom), improves aerodynamics by approximately 2 times. Accordingly, it reduces the drive power requirement of a high-speed unibus and fuel (energy) consumption for the motion at higher speeds. For example, if we relate it to modern high-speed trains, the amount of energy saving for one train at 450 km/h speed may reach due to this reason alone 7000—8000 kW or more (total drive power of modern and projected high-speed trains may exceed 20 thousand kW). If we render electric energy to fuel, then it will save 2 tons of fuel per hour, 40 tons per day (20 hours operation), 14.6 thousand tons a year, 292 thousand tons during service life (20 years). For 10 thousand of such trains fuel savings will amount to USD 2.9 billion tons.
Structural and technological improvements in the contact network and current collector – one of the most problematic and costly elements of conventional high-speed railways.
The existing contact networks and current collectors (on railways, trolleybuses and tram lines, etc.) are nondurable, despite the fact that they are made of expensive copper, unreliable in operation and have an adverse dynamics of vibrations, especially at high speeds of the rolling stock movement. Application of string-type contact network, replacement of the current collection scheme from "slip" to "rolling", exclusion of contact wire oscillations as such have dramatically improved current collection in UST – made it more reliable, durable and safe.
The original anti-derailment system, that with 100% probability excludes derailment of rolling stock from the track structure and eliminates transport accidents for this reason.
"The anti-derailment" system in the road transport is the friction force between the tire and asphalt, so even ice crust, a puddle or spilled oil on the asphalt completely shut off the system, which leads to mass disasters and deaths – about 1.5 million people a year. On railway transport, safety is ensured by a crest on a steel wheel with the height of about 30 mm, therefore the wheel can easily enough get away from the rail, and the entire train will follow it. In UST , the form factor of anti-derailment system is performed in such a manner that under any circumstances a rail car (unibus) cannot go off the track, even if the track structure turns over by 180 degrees – with the railhead down.
"The second level" placement of the track structure, anti-derailment system and the trajectory of rolling stock, specified with a precision of millimeters, increased transport safety by three orders of magnitude.
The elevation of the track structure above the ground to the "second level" have increased traffic safety by ten times, as it excluded collisions with obstacles located on the "first level" – people, animals, machinery, including agricultural one, fallen trees, etc. The lack of crossings, intersections, multi-level interchanges, pedestrian crossings and other unsafe items of transport infrastructure, have improved traffic safety by another order of magnitude. Perfectly straight and clearly defined route of motion, excluding maneuvers like entering an oncoming lane, the reliable anti-derailment system, operating in any extreme conditions, optimized logistics and automated control system, excluding the "human factor", have increased traffic safety by another order more. Altogether – traffic safety is increased by 3 orders of magnitude, i.e. a thousand times.
The lack of earth embankments and ditches have reduced excavation of soil for overhead tracks by hundreds of times and considerably raised environmental friendliness of the transport even at the construction stage.
Motor- and rail-roads of the world have destroyed soil, i.e. "rolled it in asphalt", on the area exceeding the territory of the UK by four times. This soil is dead, it does not grow vegetation that produce the oxygen we need for breathing. Even on a larger territory – an order of magnitude, that is equal to 40 territories of the UK, the soils are contaminated by carcinogens from the exhaust of fuel combustion products, de-icing salts, products of wear of tires and asphalt, therefore food grown there should not be consumed. On even larger areas disturbed is migration of animals, movement of ground and surface waters that resulted in swamping and desertification of vast areas, as road mounds become impassable low-pressure dams. Ecology is violated not only in the area of conventional strip roads, but at a distance of dozens of kilometers due to the required huge quantities of construction material from special open pits – up to 100 thousand tons of soil, sand and gravel-sand mixture on each kilometer of a road. In UST , embankments and ditches are absent, as absent are the above problems. Moreover, the volume of spot earthworks is reduced by about 100 times.
Reduction of fuel (energy) consumption by order more, especially at high-speed motion (above 400 km/h).
The improvement of rail vehicle aerodynamics by several times, including the exclusion of aerodynamic screen (solid road bed), a significant decrease of the resistance to wheel rolling on a perfectly flat road, have reduced by order less the consumption of fuel (energy) for the same amount of transporting work. This not only reduced the cost of transportation, but also proportionally decreased environmental pollution by exhaust gases, products of wear of road surface and wheels, noise, etc., – and general civilizational problems associated with these factors.
Anti-vandal and anti-terrorism stability stability of the track structure and supports, the rolling stock and infrastructure.
The SkyWay track structure, supports, rolling stock and infrastructure have high anti-vandal and anti-terrorism stability due to the following factors:
The bearing element – string – unlike, for example, the bearing wire rope of a cable way, is protected from external effects, both climatic and mechanical, by a reliable armoured body frame and a composite filler. The design of the string rail is composed of hundreds of high strength steel wires enclosed in a durable steel casing. It is much more difficult to destroy it (e.g., explosion, gun shot, etc.) than a monolithic structure, such as a conventional railway rail;
Strength reserves of a string in a rail-string transport overpass are unprecedented for building structures:
For the uncut (continuous) overpass, the fall of any support, even several supports in a row, for example, destroyed by a terrorist act, does not lead to structural collapse, as the overpass superstructures remain hanging on the adjacent supports that remained intact.
The availability of the anti-derailment system, completely excludes derailing of a wheeled rolling stock from a rail-string track, including even a turnover of a vehicle as a result of a disaster or a collision with an obstacle lying on the rails;
High strength reserves of the most stressed supports – anchor supports; even an explosion equivalent to a ton of TNT will not make such support inoperative.
The elevation of the track structure to a height of 10 meters or more, absence of a wide roadway (head of the string rail is only about 10 centimeters wide) complicate vandalism, (unlike on motor roads and railways), that is placing foreign objects that threaten traffic safety on the track structure.
Simple and effective methods to reduce operating noise.
For example, when creating 30-40 years ago the network of Shinkansen high-speed railways in Japan, at first steel flyovers were built. However, because of numerous complaints of inhabitants of villages, along which the high-speed railways passed, about a strong high-frequency noise, the construction of steel flyovers was prohibited by law. All probe-tested methods of reducing the noise generated by steel flyover structures and steel wheel pairs of trains, including their coating with rubber and polyurethane, have not yielded positive results. UST apply simple and effective methods of dealing with noise, generated by the overpass and rolling stock, by eliminating noise sources. This is the absence of joints in the rails and breaking points of a track over the supports. This is a perfectly flat track and smooth rolling surface on the railhead. This is low contact stresses in the "wheel—rail" pair and damping of the railhead and the wheel rim. This is replacement of the "singing" steel structures by the noiseless steel-reinforced concrete, etc.
Multiple reserves of strength in the pre-stressed string – the basic bearing element of rail-string overpasses.
Thanks to an optimized design of rail-string span superstructures, the bearing armature in them – the string – has multiple reserves of strength when exposed to estimated design loads: tenfold – for overpasses with a flexible rail and sagging track structure with suspended unibuses, hundredfold – for a stiff string rail with mounted unibuses. Through these and other innovative distinctive features, the SkyWay overpass is super-tough and extremely reliable. For example, the overpass can be destroyed either by its cooling to temperatures below -250 °C or heating to temperatures above +250 °C, or by a hurricane wind of over 500 km/h speed, or by an earthquake with a magnitude of more than 10 points on the Richter scale. Such over-extreme climatic conditions are not available on the planet, so the "sky ways" can be built on any of the continents, including Antarctica.
There are also other groups of objects of engineer Yunitsky’s Intellectual property — know-how and patents for inventions, without which it is impossible to efficiently and inexpensively build SkyWay rail-string elevated transport systems (see http://yunitskiy.com/). These include:
Researching, designing and planning schools on string technology, developed over the past 25 years, the results of which were published in 18 scientific monographs and more than 200 scientific works by engineer Yunitsky. Based on hundreds of know-how in SkyWay, this allowed to create in addition to the above:
Technology of preparing concrete and special additives to it, increasing its ductility and anticorrosion protection of steel structures staying in contact with it;
Technology and rigging for broaching and tensioning of strings and their fixture in support and anchor nodes;
Technology and rigging for in-line installation in the field of long and rather heavy span superstructures made with steel-reinforced concrete;
Structures of intermediate and anchor supports not only in the part of support nodes for attaching continuous and statically indeterminate span superstructures, but also in terms of constructing and installing their bodies and foundations;
Constructive and technological solutions for the alignment of a rail-string track structure with communication lines (fiber optic, wired, radio, cellular), high-voltage power lines (overhead and cable), wind and solar power plants and other renewable and alternative energy sources. This allowed to turn SkyWay transport system into a communication system for efficient transportation of passengers, cargo, energy and information;
Constructive and technological solutions on the "second level" infrastructure (turnout switches, automated control systems, systems of power supply and communication on the linear part of the track, i.e. on the overpass, etc.);
Advanced constructive and technological decisions on further, about two times, reduction of material consumption and cost of rail-string overpasses by perfecting them and the rail wheeled rolling stock;
The motor-wheel of small size and weight (an electric motor is integrated into the wheel), but with high power and torque. This allowed to create the most effective wheeled vehicle (unibus) of all known and promising vehicles including carriages on a magnetic cushion.
Based on the foregoing intellectual property and know-how, developed by engineer Anatoly Yunitskiy within the period 1977-2013, independent international evaluators assessed the exclusive rights to it. Exclusive rights to intellectual property of engineer Yunitsky on SkyWay technology is valued at more than USD 400 billion. In 2013 the rights were contributed to the authorized capital of GTI company, registered in the British Virgin Islands.
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